The right of legislative initiative belongs to the Russian President, the Federal Assembly, the Government of Russia and the legislative bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation. Official organizations of state power and local self-government, citizens and their associations must obey the laws and the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The laws must be officially promulgated. Unpublished laws are not applicable. No legal act affecting the rights, freedoms or duties of the people may be applied unless it has been published officially for general knowledge.
Draft laws are introduced in the State Duma. Federal laws passed and LAW-MAKING PROCESS IN RUSSIA adopted by the State Duma are submitted within 5 days for examination by the Federation Council. A federal law is considered to have been approved by the Federation Council if more than half of the total number of deputies have voted for it or if the Federation Council does not examine it within 14 days. In the event the Federation Council rejects the federal law, the chambers may set up a conciliatory commission to settle the differences, after which the federal law shall be reconsidered by the State Duma.
In the event the State Duma disagrees with the decision of the Federation LAW-MAKING PROCESS IN RUSSIA Council, the federal law is considered to have been adopted if, in the second reading, not less than two-thirds of the total number of the deputies of the State Duma have voted in favour of it. Then the federal law is sent to the President for his signature and after that it must be published within 5 days.
If the President of the Russian Federation rejects a federal law within 14 days of receiving it, both the State Duma and the Federation Council shall reconsider that law in accordance with the procedure established by the Russian Constitution. If upon reconsideration LAW-MAKING PROCESS IN RUSSIA the law is approved in the previously adopted wording by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total number of members of the Federation Council and of deputies of the State Duma, it must be signed by the President within 7 days and promulgated. The President may veto the draft law.
The work of the Government of Russia is controlled by federal constitutional law. It is ratified on matters specified in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. In case of a federal constitutional law it is considered to have been adopted if a majority of at least LAW-MAKING PROCESS IN RUSSIA three quarters of the members of the Federation Council and two-thirds of the deputies of the State Duma have approved it. Then it must be signed by the President within 14 days and published. Federal laws may not go against the Russian Constitution and federal constitutional laws.
Ответьте на вопросы:
1. Whom does the right of legislative initiative belong to ?
2. Are draft laws introduced in the State Duma?
3. Who rejects the federal law?
4. What happens if the President rejects a federal law?
5. Who may veto the draft law?
6. Must a federal constitutional law be signed by the President LAW-MAKING PROCESS IN RUSSIA or by the Prime Minister?
7. Who controls the work of the Government in Russia?
8. Federal laws must not go against the Russian Constitution, must they?
Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский:
v Граждане Российской Федерации должны соблюдать законы.
v Законы должны быть официально обнародованы.
v Нормативный акт не может быть применен без официального
v Федеральный закон должен быть подписан президентом.
v Президент может наложить вето на законопроект.
v Право законодательной инициативы принадлежит Президенту, правительству России и законодательным органам.
v Законопроекты вносятся на рассмотрение в Думу.
v Работа правительства России контролируется федеральным конституционным законом.